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Virgil Thomson

November 25, 1896 - September 30, 1989
born in Kansas City, MO, composed during the Modern period
Perhaps best known for his collaborations with author Gertrude Stein, American composer and music critic Virgil Thomson was born in Kansas City. He began playing piano at the age of five and began taking lessons with local teachers at age 12. He studied organ from 1909 until 1917, and again in 1919. As a young man, Thomson worked as an organist in his family's church of Calvary Baptist, as well as in other churches throughout Kansas City. After attending Central High School from 1908 to 1913, Thomson enrolled at a local junior college, where he studied from 1915 to 1917, and again in 1919. During World War I, Thomson enrolled in the Army, where he served in a field artillery unit. He also received training in radio telephony at Columbia University and in aviation in Texas. The war ended shortly before Thomson was to leave for France.

In the fall of 1919, Thomson enrolled at Harvard University, where he met three individuals who would come to have a profound influence on the young musician. The first of these was Edward Burlingame Hill, with whom Thomson studied orchestration and modern French music. Archibald T. Davison was the conductor of the Harvard Glee Club, a group with which Thomson spent three years as assistant and accompanist. Thomson also came into contact with S. Foster Damon, a Blake Scholar who introduced him to the music of Satie and the writings of Gertrude Stein. Thomson began to compose in 1920, while still a student at Harvard.

Thomson spent the summer of 1921 touring Europe with the Glee Club. As the tour wound down, Thomson decided to remain, and under a John Knowles Paine Traveling Fellowship, he studied organ with Nadia Boulanger and counterpoint privately. During this time, he continued to compose and had his first critical writings published by the Boston Transcript. Upon his return the U.S., Thomson returned to Harvard and became organist/choirmaster at King's Chapel in Boston. After his graduation from Harvard in 1923, a grant from the Juilliard School allowed him to go to New York, where he studied conducting with Chalmers Clifton and counterpoint with Rosario Scalero.

From 1925 to 1940, aside from occasional visits to the U.S., Thomson resided in Paris. It was there, in 1926, that he met Stein. The two began to plan an opera, the result of which is Four Saints in Three Acts, perhaps Thomson's most famous work. For a period of approximately seven years after the composition of Four Saints in Three Acts, Thomson explored the problems of "pure" music as he worked on expanding his technical facility as a composer, especially in regards to writing for string instruments. During the late 1930s, Thomson returned to a more nationalistic vein with the scores to two films, The Plow That Broke the Plain and The River, and a ballet, Filling Station.

In October of 1940, Thomson became music critic for The New York Herald Tribune. Although he continued to compose during his 14 years at the post, Thomson established himself as one of the foremost critical writers of the era. His writings, which are characterized by a brilliant and at times deeply provocative, but always highly opinionated whit, furnished material for three anthologies; The Musical Scene, The Art of Judging Music and Music, and Right and Left. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Thomson traveled extensively as a guest lecturer, or a conference participant, all the while continuing to conduct, write articles, and compose. ~ Stephen Kingsbury, Rovi
full bio

Selected Discography

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Track List: Nothing Divine is Mundane: Songs of Virgil Thomson

Title: Preciosilla, song for voice & piano

1. Preciosilla, song for voice & piano: Preciosilla

Title: Susie Asado, song for voice & piano

2. Susie Asado, song for voice & piano: Susie Asado

Title: La Belle en dormant, song cycle for voice & piano

3. La Belle en dormant, song cycle for voice & piano: I. Pour Chercher Sur La Carte Des Mers

4. La Belle en dormant, song cycle for voice & piano: II. La Premiere De Toutes

5. La Belle en dormant, song cycle for voice & piano: III. Mon Amour Est Bon a Dire

6. La Belle en dormant, song cycle for voice & piano: IV. Partis Les Vaisseaux

Title: Stabat Mater, for soprano & string quartet

7. Stabat Mater, for soprano & string quartet: Stabat Mater

Title: Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano

8. Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano: I. the Divine Image

9. Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano: II. Tiger! Tiger!

10. Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano: III. the Land of Dreams

11. Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano: IV. the Little Black Boy

12. Five Songs from William Blake, for baritone & piano: V. "and Did Those Feet"

Title: Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion, For Mezzo-soprano & Piano

13. Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion, For Mezzo-soprano & Piano: I. Follow Your Saint

14. Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion, For Mezzo-soprano & Piano: II. There Is a Garden in Her Face

15. Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion, For Mezzo-soprano & Piano: III. Rose Cheek'd Laura, Come!

16. Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion, For Mezzo-soprano & Piano: IV. Follow Thy Fair Sun

Title: Mostly About Love, song cycle for voice & piano ("Songs for Alice Estey")

17. Mostly About Love, song cycle for voice & piano ("Songs for Alice Estey"): I. Love Song

18. Mostly About Love, song cycle for voice & piano ("Songs for Alice Estey"): II. Down at the Docks

19. Mostly About Love, song cycle for voice & piano ("Songs for Alice Estey"): III. Let's Take a Walk

20. Mostly About Love, song cycle for voice & piano ("Songs for Alice Estey"): IV. a Prayer to Saint Catherine

Title: Tres Estampas de Niñez, song cycle for voice & piano

21. Tres Estampas de Niñez, song cycle for voice & piano: I. Todas Las Horas

22. Tres Estampas de Niñez, song cycle for voice & piano: II. Son Amigos De Todos

23. Tres Estampas de Niñez, song cycle for voice & piano: III. Nadie Lo Oye Como Ellos

Title: Two By Marianne Moore, Songs For Voice & Piano

24. Two By Marianne Moore, Songs For Voice & Piano: I. English Usage

25. Two By Marianne Moore, Songs For Voice & Piano: II. My Crow Pluto

x

Track List: Virgil Thomson: Four Songs To Poems Of Thomas Campion/Violin Sonata/Praises And Prayers

x

Track List: Virgil Thomson: Louisiana Story; The Plow That Broke The Plains

Title: The Plow That Broke The Plains, Suite From The Film Score For Orchestra
Title: Louisiana Story, Suite From The Film Score For Orchestra
Title: Acadian Songs And Dances, For Orchestra (from The Film "Louisiana Story")
Title: Fugues And Cantilenas, Suite For Orchestra (from The Film "Power Among Men")
x

Track List: Virgil Thomson: Symphony No 1-3

Title: Symphony No. 2

1. Symphony No. 2: I. Allegro Militaire

2. Symphony No. 2: II. Andante

3. Symphony No. 2: III. Allegro

Title: Symphony No. 3

4. Symphony No. 3: I. Allegro Moderato

5. Symphony No. 3: II. Tempo Di Valzer

6. Symphony No. 3: III. Adagio Sostenuto

7. Symphony No. 3: IV. Allegretto

Title: Pilgrims And Pioneers, For Orchestra (arrangement Of The Film Score "Journey To America")

8. Pilgrims And Pioneers, For Orchestra (arrangement Of The Film Score "Journey To America"): Pilgrims And Pioneers

Title: Symphony On A Hymn Tune ("Symphony No. 1")

9. Symphony On A Hymn Tune ("Symphony No. 1"): I. Introduction And Allegro

10. Symphony On A Hymn Tune ("Symphony No. 1"): II. Andante Cantabile

11. Symphony On A Hymn Tune ("Symphony No. 1"): III. Allegretto

12. Symphony On A Hymn Tune ("Symphony No. 1"): IV. Alla Breve

x

Track List: Virgil Thomson: The Plow That Broke The Plains / The River

Title: The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score

1. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Prelude

2. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Pastorale (Grass)

3. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Cattle

4. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: The Homesteader

5. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Warning

6. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: War And The Tractor

7. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Speculation (Blues)

8. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Drought

9. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Wind And Dust

10. The Plow That Broke The Plains, Film Score: Devastation

Title: The River, Film Score (2 Versions)

11. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Prelude

12. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): First Forest

13. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): A Big River

14. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Cotton Pickers

15. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Ruins

16. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Logging

17. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Coal

18. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Floods

19. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Requiem

20. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Tenancy

21. The River, Film Score (2 Versions): Finale

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