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Skatalites

More than a band, the Skatalites were and are an institution, an aggregation of top-notch musicians who didn't merely define the sound of Jamaica, they were the sound of Jamaica across the '50s and '60s. Although the group existed in its original incarnation for less than 18 months, members brought their signature styles to hundreds upon hundreds of the island's releases. The Skatalites officially lined up as guitarist Jerome "Jah Jerry" Hinds, bassist Lloyd Brevett, teenaged pianist Donat Roy "Jackie" Mittoo, drummer Lloyd Knibbs, trumpeter Johnnie "Dizzie" Moore, Cuban-born tenor saxophonist Tommy McCook, alto saxophonists Lester Sterling and Cuban born Roland Alphonso, and trombonist Don Drummond. Moore, McCook, Sterling, and Drummond were all alumni of the Alpha Cottage School for Boys, an educational institution for troubled and troublesome boys in Kingston, run by the Catholic diocese. Besides the regular lashings of studies, the school was renowned for its music program, and over the years turned hundreds of wayward boys into performers of note. All four ended up playing the hotel circuit, churning out R&B and jazz covers for the tourists.

Previous to the late '50s, this was Jamaica's only real music industry outside the mento scene, and as there were no local record labels, resorts were the only way for musicians to seriously ply their trade. The hotel bands were an ever-shifting conglomerate of players, but over time, they would crisscross each other's paths so often, that all became familiar with everyone else's style. Knibbs and Drummond, for example, had both once played with Eric Dean's Band. When Knibbs departed for the Sheiks, he joined a lineup that included Mittoo and Moore. However, new career opportunities presented themselves when local businessmen Duke Reid and Clement "Coxsonne" Dodd both launched record labels and the era of the sessionmen arrived in Jamaica.

Although both McCook and Alphonso had previously cut acetates, this was the first time any of the future Skatalites would appear on vinyl. Between 1959, when Reid released his first vinyl single, and 1962, most of the band's future members worked regularly at Reid's Treasure Isle studio, playing on a swathe of R&B, boogie, and ballad releases. The Heartbeat label's Ska After Ska After Ska bundles up an album's worth of this early material, as does the Dutch label Jamaica Gold, on Shuffle'n'Ska Time. In 1962, Dodd opened his own Studio One recording studio, and the future Skatalites now quickly gravitated in his direction as well. Joining them was McCook, who'd missed all the previous action, having left Jamaica in 1954 to join the house band at the Zanzibar Club in Nassau. The studio was inaugurated with the release of the album Jazz Jamaica From the Workshop, which featured McCook, Alphonso, Drummond, and guitarist Ernest Ranglin, amongst others.

The Skatalites came to fruition in June 1964, according to the members' own reckoning, although they have given conflicting stories about just how it happened. Ranglin credits Moore, Knibbs credits himself, but there's no doubt who came up with the name -- that honor goes to McCook. Drafting in vocalists Jackie Opel, Tony DaCosta, Doreen Schaeffer, and calypso star Joseph "Lord Tanamo" Gordon, the group debuted live on June 27, 1964, at the Hi-Hat club in Rae Town. It didn't take long for the Skatalites to grab a residency at the Bournemouth Beach Club in Eastern Kingston, where they performed three nights a week, as well as a Sunday residency at the Orange Bowl on Orange Street.

With the growth of Dodd's Studio One label, the group soon found themselves with almost more gigs than they could handle, touring the island as the backing band for most of the label's artists, whilst also performing on-stage themselves. It must have been grueling, the constant driving to and from venues and playing a minimum of two sets a night, but in truth, the Skatalites were having a whale of a time. And in between the gigs, the band seems to have spent virtually all their waking hours recording. Besides working for Dodd and Reid, the group also played on a multitude of records for Prince Buster and Duke and Justin Yap. The actual number of recordings they performed on is anyone's guess, an approximation made more difficult by the fact that the musicians normally went uncredited on the singles themselves. To add to the confusion, the Skatalites in the studio could be any of a number of musicians, not just the aforementioned lineup. Guitarist Ranglin, pianist Gladstone Anderson, trombonist Rico Rodriguez, and trumpeter Baba Brooks are just a few of the many men who took part in the Skatalites recording sessions.

And what actually defines a Skatalites record? Many of their recordings were understandably released under the vocalist's name, not theirs. But what of Prince Buster's U.K. smash "Al Capone"? Buster may have intoned the title across the track, but wasn't it the Skatalites who truly made the song? Even amongst the group's own repertoire, the records were credited to the composer, not the band. Thus, the seminal "Guns of Navarone" was originally released under Roland Alphonso's name, not the Skatalites'. Modern archivists have attempted to address these injustices with compilations featuring the band, regardless of original accreditation. The West Side label's Skaravan -- Top Sounds From Top Deck, for example, is currently into the eighth CD of their Skatalites' compilations, all taken from their sessions for the Yap brothers, while Heartbeat's Foundation Ska bundles up a batch of Studio One cuts. Thankfully, the members' styles are so unique, as to be instantly recognizable within a few notes. In truth, most ska compilations are awash in the members' music, credited or not. That bouncy swing tempo, the jazzy brass, and the steady, skanking beat, all shout the Skatalites louder than any written credit, as easily heard on the vocal releases as on their own instrumentals.

But the instrumentals were the group's glory. Songs like "Guns of Navarone," "Phoenix City," "Addis Ababa," "Silver Dollar," "Corner Stone," and "Blackberry Brandy," to name just a small handful of their most seminal cuts, not only defined the island's sound, but created a whole new genre of music -- ska. The group have ofttimes been quoted as saying their invention of ska was never intentional, but merely the byproduct of their flawed attempts at American R&B. But this self-deprecating explanation neglects the jazz and big band swing sound that was also crucial to ska in its original form. And anyone good enough to play in those styles would have little problem mastering R&B. What the Skatalites actually did was drag these older styles into the contemporary scene, merge it with modern R&B, and propel it into the mainstream via a faster syncopated island beat. And with it, the group's musical legacy spread around the world and across generations.

But that must have seemed ridiculous at the very end of 1964. The Skatalites were playing at the La Parisienne club in Harbour View for New Year's Eve, a show that went on without Drummond. The trombonist had a history of mental illness and late that night, in a fit of rage, he stabbed his common-law wife and band vocalist, Marguerita, to death. Drummond was arrested and sent to Bellevue Sanitarium; he died there in 1969. The Skatalites continued on for six more months after this tragedy, but the spark was dying with it, and finally in July 1965, the members called it quits. Several from the group did continue playing together. Alphonso, Moore, Mittoo, and Brevett eventually formed the Soul Brothers, which later become the Soul Vendors. McCook formed the Supersonics, which was virtually Reid's house band at Treasure Isle Studio, and Sterling went off to work with producer "Sir" Clancy Collins. As their session work continued apace, inevitably many of the former members found themselves back working together. Then in 1975, most of the Skatalites reunited to record Brevett's solo album, African Roots. McCook, Alphonso, Sterling, Ranglin, Mittoo, and Knibbs all took part in the proceedings. Two years later, the Hot Lava album appeared, credited to Tommy McCook & the Skatalites, but in contrast to Brevett's "solo" album, this really was one. 1978's Jackie Mittoo may sound like a solo outing by the pianist, but actually features a clutch of former Skatalites. That same year, Island head Chris Blackwell convinced the members to reconvene again and recorded the Big Guns album. However, due to discord between the label man and McCook, the record sat on the shelf until 1984, when it was finally released as Return of the Big Guns. The previous year, the group had again reunited under the aegis of producer Bunny Lee for the Skatalites With Sly & Robbie & the Taxi Gang.

It took a few more years for the members to finally agree they were a band again; in 1986 they made it official and began gigging regularly. In 1989, they toured the world as Bunny Wailer's backing band, and the next year performed the same service for Prince Buster. In 1993, an album of new material, Skavoovee, finally appeared. Now boasting a core lineup of McCook, Brevett, Sterling, and Knibbs, the album was highly acclaimed. Their timing was perfect as the U.S. was in the grips of ska fever, and the band's constant touring abroad had cemented a worldwide following. Over the intervening years, the Skatalites had returned to their jazz roots with a vengeance, but ska fans didn't mind one bit. Alphonso now permanently rejoined the Skatalites for 1994's Hi-Bop Ska: The 30th Anniversary Recording, which also featured such illustrious guests as former vocalist Doreen Schaeffer, Prince Buster, and Toots Hibbert, and an all-star gathering of jazz musicians. The album deservedly earned the band their first Grammy nomination. Even McCook's heart attack in 1995 barely slowed the group down. The band continued their hectic touring schedule without him until the tenor saxophonist rejoined them early the next year.

However, even though he was forced off the road for good due to health problems a few weeks later, he was still able to record, and 1996's excellent Greetings from Skamania remains a tribute to his determination, and earned the group a second Grammy nomination. On May 5, 1998, the legendary saxophonist passed away; he was 71. Later that year, the Skatalites released Balls of Fire, on which the band re-created many of their old ska hits in their newer jazz style. That autumn, Alphonso collapsed on-stage at Hollywood's Key Club. He slipped into a coma soon after, and on November 20, he, too, died. But no matter how great the contributions of individual members, the Skatalites were always greater than the sum of their parts, and thus the band carried on. In 2000, they released Bashaka and their touring schedule continued unabated. While touring Europe in late 2001, they recorded yet again, resulting in the 2003 release of From Paris with Love. In May of 2012, bassist Lloyd Brevett, one of the two original Skatalites to appear on From Paris with Love (the other being trumpeter Johnnie "Dizzie" Moore), died in a Jamaican hospital at the age of 80. As the passage of time has taken its toll, the years still bring compilations of Skatalites recordings from labels around the world. Decades on, their music remains timeless. ~ Jo-Ann Greene, Rovi
full bio

Selected Discography

x

Track List: The Skatalites Play Ska

1. Wise Man

2. Skylarka

3. Wild Man Street

4. Cow Town Skank

5. Northern Sound

6. Convention

7. The Joker From La Boka

8. Legs Man

9. Greenwich Farm

10. Girls Town

11. Tip Toe

12. Gold Coast

13. Boys Town

14. T-Bone

15. Meranque

16. Buddy Bye

x

Track List: Duke Reid Presents

1. Latin Goes Ska

2. James Bond

3. Inez

4. Eastern Standard Time

5. Alipang

6. River To The Bank

7. Yellow Basket

8. Musical Communion

9. Lucky Seven

10. Teenage Ska

11. Anniversary Ska

12. Garden Of Love

13. Don's Memorial

14. Starry Night

15. Corner Stone

16. Vitamin A

17. Don De Lion

18. Guns Fever

19. University Goes Ska

20. Twelve Minutes To Go

21. Apanga

22. Garden Of Love (Mix 2)

23. Knockout Punch

24. Feeling Fine

25. Magic

26. Musical Store Room

27. River Bank

28. Wall Street Shuffle

29. Yard Broom

30. Twilight Zone

31. Rude Boy

32. Rocking Away

33. I Will Always Love You

34. Silver Dollar

35. Silver Dollar (Mix 2)

36. Love It Up

37. Street Corner

38. Woman A Come

39. Dr Decker

40. Musical Rampage

41. One Drop

42. Grooving

43. Occupation

44. Strolling In

45. Party Time

x

Track List: Essential Ska Masters

1. Ska-Boo-Da-Ba

2. Confucius

3. Chinatown

4. Reburial

5. Smiling

6. Ska-Ra-Van

7. Ringo Rides

8. Surftide Seven

9. Lawless Street

10. Marcus Junior

11. Ghost Town

12. China Clipper

13. Yogi Man

14. South China Sea

15. Red Is Danger

16. Determination

17. Shot In The Dark

18. Non-Stop

19. VC10

20. Love In The Afternoon

21. Man Alone

22. There She Goes

23. Please Beverley

24. Old Broom Sweep Clean

25. No More Will I Wonder

26. Come Back Pretty Baby

27. Ambition Of Men

28. Ska Down Jamaica Way

29. Ska-Ta-Shot

30. Rolli Rollin'

x

Track List: Essential Skatalites

Disc 1

1. River Bank

2. Latin Goes Ska

3. James Bond

4. Inez

5. Eastern Western Time

6. Alipang

7. River To The Bank

8. Yellow Basket

9. Musical Communication

10. Lucky Seven

11. Teenage Ska

12. Anniversary Ska

13. Garden Of Love

14. Don's Memorial

15. Starry Night

16. Corner Stone

17. Vitamin A

18. Don De Lion

19. Guns Fever

20. University Goes Ska

21. Twelve Minutes To Go

22. Apanga

23. Garden Of Love Mix 2

24. Knock Out Punch

25. Feeling Fine

Disc 2

1. Magic

2. Musical Store Room

3. Wall Street Shuffle

4. Yard Broom

5. Twilight Zone

6. Rude Boy

7. Rocking Away

8. I Will Always Love You

9. Silver Dollar

10. Silver Dollar Mix 2

11. Love It Up

12. Street Corner

13. Woman A Come

14. Dr Decker

15. Musical Rampage

16. One Drop

17. Grooving

18. Occupation

19. Strolling In

20. Party Time

x

Track List: On The Right Track

1. New York Minute

2. Outback Ska

3. Shock Trail

4. Right Track

5. Doreen Special

6. Divine Conception

7. Bye Bye

8. Little Irene

9. June Rose

10. One Armed Bandit

11. Marguerita's Lament

12. Uluru Rock

13. Outback Dub

x

Track List: Rolling Steady: The 1983 Music Mountain Sessions

1. We Nah Sleep

2. Contention

3. Big Trombone

4. Away From Hoome

5. Idler's Rest

6. Rolling Steady

7. Devil's Triangle

8. The Master's Call

9. Absent Without Leave

x

Track List: Ska Splash

2. Man In The Street

3. Eastern Standard Time

4. Four Corners

5. Bridge View

10. Come Down (With Laurel Aitken)

12. Freedom

13. Guns Of Navarone

14. Phoenix City

x

Track List: Guns Of Navarone, The Best Of

1. Guns Of Navarone

2. Eastern Standard Time

3. Garden Of Love

4. Latin Goes Ska

6. Street Corner

7. Musical Store Room

8. Green Island

9. Corner Stone

10. Musical Communion

11. Doctor Dekker

12. Feeling Fine

13. Don De Lion

14. Lucky Seven

15. Stampede

16. Silver Dollar

17. University Goes Ska

19. Cool Smoke

21. Alley Pang

22. Good News

23. Thoroughfare

24. Mesopotamia

x

Track List: The Legendary Skatalites In Dub: Skatalites Meet King Tubby

1. Starlight Version

2. Middle East Dub

3. Fugitive Dub

4. Whispering Dub

5. Kimble Dub

6. Roots Dub

7. Bottom Dub

8. African Roots Dub

9. Dumboo Dub

10. African Dub

11. Herb Dub-Collie Dub

12. Candlelight Dub

13. Starlight (feat. Tony Brevett)

14. Middle East

15. Sealing Dub

x

Track List: Ball Of Fire

1. James Bond Theme (1998)

2. Latin Goes Ska (1998)

3. Confucious (1998)

4. Occupation (1998)

5. Rock Fort Rock (1998)

6. Eastern Standard Time (1998)

7. Ball Of Fire (1998)

8. Swing Easy (1998)

9. Ringo (1998)

10. Freedom Sound (1998)

x

Track List: Greetings From Skamania

1. Skalloween

2. Skamania

3. El P**sy Cat

4. Right Now

5. Have A Good Time

6. Phoenix City

7. Trip To Mars

8. Triangle

9. Wood And Water

10. I Wish You Love

11. S'Kool

x

Track List: Hi-Bop Ska

1. Guns Of Navarone

2. Flowers For Albert

3. Ska Reggae Hi-Bop

4. You're Wondering Now

5. Everlasting Sound

6. African Freedom

7. Man In The Street

8. Split Personality

9. Renewal

10. Nelson's Song

11. Burru Style

12. Ska Ska Ska

x

Track List: Stretching Out

Disc 1

1. Freedom Sounds

2. Bridge View

3. Latin Goes Ska

4. Tear Up

5. Guns Of Navarone

6. Man In The Street

7. Come Dung

8. Big Trombone

9. Ska Ba

10. Road Block

11. Eastern Standard Time

12. Confucius

Disc 2

1. Lee Harvey Oswald

2. Black Sunday

3. Mood For Ska

4. Fidel Castro (#1)

5. El P**sy Cat

6. Four Corners

7. Exodus

8. Old Fowl

9. Fidel Castro (#2)

10. Welcome Back Home

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